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Republic of China is a country with establishment of five separate powers including the judiciary power, executive power, legislative power, examination power and supervision power. According to the provision of our constitution, the Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial authority that manages trial on civil, criminal and administrative lawsuits and reprimand of government employees. In addition, it also has the right to interpret the constitution and uniform interpretation on law and order. In order to implement the exercise of the judicial right thoroughly, the Judicial Yuan establish the Grand Judge to interpret the constitution and interpret the laws and orders uniformly. In addition, various classes of court are set to manage the trial of civil and criminal matters. Furthermore, based on the provision of the Court Organization Act, courts in our country are divided into district court, high court and Supreme Court. In principle, the three classes of court deal with three levels of trial. The Supreme Court is the highest trial authority of the country that manages the final trial judgment of civil and criminal contentious matters. The dispute of the rights and interests of the parties concerned and the existence of the nation’s criminal penalty right both become final here.
Taiwan High Court is the intermediate court between the Supreme Court and district court that manages trial on civil and criminal matters and other contentious matters provided by law. In respect of judicial administration, the court shall be under the direct supervision of the Judicial Yuan and shall supervise various subordinate branch courts and judicial administration of various district courts and juvenile courts.
For the jurisdictional cases, except otherwise specially provided by law, the district court shall handle the first trial on civil and criminal matters, simple contentious matters and civil small amount matters, civil and criminal matters that the judgment by appeal or interlocutory appeal to civil and criminal summary judgment is lodged and other contentious and non-contentious matters provided by law.